Thursday, March 19, 2020
Following the period of time in Athens during the 5th Century B.C when it was ruled by a radical, extreme democracy, the Athenian people voted to choose thirty men to rule as an oligarchy. The Athenians wanted to be governed by the ancient laws enacted by Solon and Cleisthenes, so these men were chosen by the people to frame the ancient laws into a constitution under which to conduct the government. However, the Thirty had their own agendas, ones that earned them the nickname The Thirty Tyrants of Athens. What did these so called Thirty Tyrants hope to achieve in Athens? Well, mainly they wanted total control over the Athenian people and its government, and to use this to their own advantages. After they were chosen, the Thirty delayed framing and publishing this constitution, the very thing that they were put in place to do. This was done for their own benefit, as since there was no constitution as yet, they could still make the rules up as they went along. However, they still appointed a Senate and Magistrates as they saw fit. This enabled them to appoint people they know would be loyal to them, and support anything they tried to do. The first step the Thirty took when voted to power in 404 B.C was to arrest all the people who by common knowledge had made a living during the time of the democracy by acting as informers and opposing the aristocrats. They were held with a sentence of death if found guilty. This pleased the Senate, as they were the aristocratic class that these people had opposed. They were happy to hand out guilty verdicts. The common people were not displeased because they knew that they were not part of this class. This enabled the Thirty to dispose of all the obvious troublemakers who would oppose them. The Thirty realized that to enable them to be free to make decisions on their behalf, they would also need a military force. Therefore, they sent two of their members, by the names...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Motivational Advice from Oscar-Winning Actors We have collected some nice motivational quotes from the most beloved Oscar-winning actors. The way to the big screen is a really hard way and most celebrities have achieved great success through dedication, sacrifice and hard work, learning wisdom on their way. Today they are going to share their wisdom with you. Its a wonderful metaphor, catching a wave, for how you can look at other challenges in your life. Jeff Bridges There is no life without hardships just like there is no sea without waves. Some people give up after facing a challenge, but they shouldnt. Sometimes waves knock you down but you should get up and move on. Only if you keep moving forward you can catch the wave and let it drift you. I think that when you dont see the boundaries, you cross them without even knowing they exist in the first place. Marion Cotillard The best way to push the boundaries is to forget about their existence. Boundaries are born in your mind and you are the only one who sets them. My life is the road, man. I need to keep moving. Matthew McConaughey Every individual has his own way on the road of life. So never stop moving forward, no matter how tough the road is. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t just aspire to make a living, aspire to make a difference. Denzel Washington The only way to achieve success is being an individual. Whatever you are doing, try to do it your own way. Making a living without feeling pleasure in your life and work will get you into nowhere. When you make a difference, you make your life more challenging but interesting and full of hopes. There are a lot of great movies that have won the Academy Award, and a lot of great movies that havent. You just do the best you can. Clint Eastwood What is the most important factor for success? Is it luck or hard work? Of course, luck is tricky: sometimes it is good, sometimes it is bad and we cannot engineer it. But we can come closer to doing so by applying our best efforts. In this industry, there are only two ways up the ladder. Rung by rung or claw your way to the top. Its sure been tough on my nails. Jack Nicholson Some people achieve success operating really tough while the others just move slowly but steadily. No matter how exactly you are acting, after you apply the best efforts, achievement is bound to come. So never give up and be tough when it is needed. Some are born great. Some achieve greatness. Some get it as a graduation gift. Robin Williams Some people are born with something special that others do not seem to have. It might be a look in their eyes or a great charisma: you either have it or you dont. However, there are people who know what to do to become great and they are continually trying to become better. Thus, what Robin Williams says, is that real greatness is a mixture of the two. When I was a little kid, I watched great people acting. You are the people wanted made me want to be an actor. Now Im proud to be an actor and Im gonna keep on acting. Whoopi Goldberg There are great people in the world - people who have inspired others by their achievements, values and attitudes. People who are the best at what they do are the greatest teachers. Watch them and learn from them and maybe someday you will inspire others as well. These powerful messages is something you can benefit from - realize your potential, do your best, set goals and achieve them. There are many ways to make your dreams come true, so keep these motivational advice in your mind and be a winner! Image credit: CNN Entertainment.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
The nternational economic forces - Assignment Example This essay discusses that in European countries global economic factors and international economic conditions have been creating significant impacts on their various economic conditions. After the World War II economic conditions of these countries have been changing to great extent and these economic conditions are increasingly becoming dependent on international economic as well as financial factors. Governments and economic policymakers of these countries have been trying to implement various economic policies, including both fiscal and monetary policies aimed at reducing the level of intensity of international economic factors in the process of creating negative impacts on economies of these countries. These economic problems are associated with various economic factors, such as inflation, unemployment, lower level of income, detrimental effects on growth aspects of these countries, demand side as well as supply side obstacles etc. In these various fiscal as well as monetary poli cies have been introduced by the governments and policymakers of these countries. These policies have been introduced in order to mitigate if the negative effects of global economic and financial crises and also to reduce the level of dependence of these countries on international economic forces. International economic forces are those economic forces which are created mainly in the global or international market by various global or international economic agents, but affect various economic and financial conditions of the national economies. ... he World War II economic conditions of these countries have been changing to great extent and these economic conditions are increasingly becoming dependent on international economic as well as financial factors. Governments and economic policymakers of these countries have been trying to implement various economic policies, including both fiscal and monetary policies aimed at reducing the level of intensity of international economic factors in the process of creating negative impacts on economies of these countries (Acs and Szerb, 2012, p.15). These economic problems are associated with various economic factors, such as inflation, unemployment, lower level of income, detrimental effects on growth aspects of these countries, demand side as well as supply side obstacles etc. In these various fiscal as well as monetary policies have been introduced by the governments and policymakers of these countries (Dornbusch et al., 2012, pp.149-151). These policies have been introduced in order to mitigate if the negative effects of global economic and financial crises and also to reduce the level of dependence of these countries on international economic forces. International economic forces: International economic forces are those economic forces which are created mainly in the global or international market by various global or international economic agents, but affect various economic and financial conditions of the national economies. These international economic forces sometimes create positive effects on the national economies; however they also create negative or detrimental effects on economic aspects of national economies as well. One of the most important international economic forces has been the global financial and economic crises of recent times which have not only
Sunday, February 2, 2020
The Role of Non-Executive Directors for the Best Work of Corporation - Essay Example This paper illustrates that corporate governance is mainly concentrated on the problem of a safety mechanism which ensures the interests of shareholders and the interests of the directors managing the company are aligned and observed. In fact, it deals with the ways in which suppliers of finance to the corporations assure themselves of getting a return on their investment. The governance problem arises when managersÃ¢â¬â¢ or directorsÃ¢â¬â¢ interests of maximizing their own wealth, power and prestige and shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests of increasing the value shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity collide. This misalignment of interests was addressed by the agency theory developed in the West. The theory assumes that interests of managers and principles or owners are not aligned because of the separation of ownership and control and the only mechanism to safeguard shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s interests is to implement appropriate governance structures. The agency problem in the United States and the United Kingdom is between the management/board and outside diverse shareholders while in continental Europe and Japan and East Asian markets with their concentrated ownership structure the main conflict is between the major owners/directors and minority shareholders. Corporate scandals such as notorious Enron, Tyco, WorldCom, Polly Peck, HIH Insurance, and OneTel suggested the need for changes in corporate governance regulations all over the world. As trust towards company insiders as well as to auditors, analysts or regulators was shattered, governments started to think over regulations which would prevent such unfair practices. As the board of directors represents the interests of shareholders and controls\supervises the management, its effective functioning is a strong corporate governance mechanism.Ã
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Socialisation Is A Fundamental Sociological Concept Sociology Essay Socialisation is a fundamental sociological concept as it is the way we learn to be a functioning part of the society we are in, how to become a member of the group. Socialisation starts from the moment we are born and there are many arguments that help to show how such socialisation is a continuous process. It continues throughout our lives to help us fit into and be accepted into the many groups within society that we encounter during our lifetime or to just adjust to the changes in our existing community. Although an Important social topic that affects all members of society at one time, widespread mainstream literature concerning gender socialisation is difficult to come by. As mentioned, socialisation starts from the day we are born, the very start, so to help understand socialisation as a whole, developing an understanding of some of its parts is helpful. For this piece of work I shall be focusing on gender socialisation and the impact it has on an individuals socialisation into society. The concept of gender socialisation helps us to understand how the notion of gender, what is expected of individuals as males and females in society and how much it matters. Throughout examining literature for this topic I hope to gain a better understanding of what academic sociologist have to say on this topic. The aim is to try to Identify important factors that impact gender socialisation and what literature is current on a similar topic. Has there been a change in attitude to such gendered socialisation and the idea or construction of gender? What are these and how are these developing; I.e. gendered parenting/modern schooling? I also would like to explore nature vs. nurture/boy vs. girl/male vs. female. What are these titles and how are they explained in a sociological way. I hope to gain a greater concept of gender theories and what is already known about my chosen topic. To help to develop my understanding of sociological explanations for gender socialisation I have approached several academic texts to help guide and aid my understanding. The first book that I revised is The Paradoxes of Gender (1999) by Judith Lorber. Written by Feminist and sociologist Lorber I found that this book challenges the basic idea we may hold of gender and its construction. Lorber argues that gender is a social fact constructed wholly by socialisation. Lorber also notes that gender is also a social institution, comparable to religion, the economy and the family as with it follows consequences and social significance. As a feminist Lorbers work focuses on the need for gender and how it is an inevitable fact that is important not only for the identity of an individual but also for societys construction. While I initially focused on Lorbers Text for a main point of reference I also followed up with works such as Women, Men and Society (1999) Renzetti and Curran, The Gender T rap (2012) Emily W Kane. These texts form the primary reading for this lit review. I supplemented these with more classical theory books such as Marx, Weber, Durkheim and Classical Sociological theory (2006) What is gender socialisation? There are many different theories of how gender socialisation happens and how/when it occurs. To help understand gender socialisation, an attempt at a definition is helpful. In its simplest form gender socialisation is how an individual learns and accepts the expected gender norms and values of the culture and society they are born into. Through this education they begin to develop a sense of identity and their ideas of gender become internalised and guide their behaviour. The Paradoxes of Gender (1994) attempts to explore all areas of Gender and the influences they have on gender identity and wider gender influences. To help with gender socialisation there are ideas within the wider concept that help to make up a persons gender socialisation. Lorber sees Gender norms as a set of rules appropriate for males and females; they are a set of expectations these expectations help to dictate how men and women are labelled, and therefore how they should behave. The rules and expectations follow on to become internalised and help to forma gender identity, which leads us to the second point highlighted to help gain an understanding of gender socialisation; Gender identity. Sociologists make a clear distinction between gender and sex. A persons sex is biological determined and gender is culturally learnt. Gender identity goes beyond just recognising the physical biological gender characteristics belonging to male and female and identifying them from each other. Gender identity is in fact an internal personal conception of how an individual view themselves as male or female. Gender cannot be equated with biol ogical and physiological differences between human males and females. The building blocks of gender are socially constructed. (Lorber 1994:17) How gender socialisation impacts Individuals life choices. Gender socialisation impacts all areas of social life and therefore does in fact make it an important topic of study. The way an individual is socialised in terms of their gender has an overall impact on daily life including that of social self, self-concept and the way we conduct personal relationships with others and the perceptions we make. Family, friends, social peers and outside uncontrollable sources are all agents through which socialisation occurs. Religion, mass media education and pop culture are becoming ever increasingly influential over socialisation and how an individual views themselves in respect to their gender. Boys and girls are treated different right from birth, this treatment is often primarily from members of their own environment, such as their parents, siblings and extended families, and the way they are treated helps them to learn the distinction between being male or female. Most parents create a gendered world for their new-born by naming, birth announcem ents and dress. Childrens relationships with same-gendered and different-gendered caretakers structure their self-identifications and personalities (Lorber 1994:25).Similar to The Paradoxes of Gender (2004), Men, Women and Society (2002) also addresses the many aspects of what we see as gender. One of the most interesting research topics explored in this book is the concept of how outside choices influence a childs gender socialisation. This is quite often transmitted through simple gestures such as the selection of gender based toys or giving a child a gender based task Research does show that children express gender based toy preferences as early as one year of age, but their toy choices may have been inspired even earlier by parental encouragement (Renzetti and Curran1999;74). These seemingly insignificant acts do in fact play a large part in the socialisation of children, and as a result how they develop their gender identity, and therefore their ender socialisation. A common th eme throughout all the literature based around gender, explore varying influences on what is gender and how it constructed. Nature vs Nurture vs gender identity. An influential and on-going debate amongst sociologists is the argument of the importance of nature vs. nurture in terms of gender socialisation. This ever evolving debate attempts to discover how a biological identity differs over individuals social surroundings to develop a gender identity. A biological and genetic gender identity fuels the nature area of debate whereas society and external influences help to form the idea of nurture. Many argue that to efficiently form an active gender identity, there must be a significant influence from either nature or nurture, but the question continues as to which is more influential, if either. In the Journal article The Nature of Gender Udry attempts to distinguish between what is sex; and what is gender. Gender is the relationship between biological sex and behaviour; a theory of gender explains the relationship. A gendered behaviour is the one that defines sex (Udry 1994;561). This idea and the theme of this article help to highlight my in itial argument about discussing how gender is a social construction. Sex is a given but a persons gender can be perceived differently dependant on how they behaviour. My project will attempt to further this idea by looking into how this behaviour is shaped and learnt. Children start to come into contact with such norms that define what it is to be masculine or feminine. What is acceptable or unacceptable behaviour is placed upon them in both conscious and unconscious ways. Young boys are taught not to show high emotion, to be strong and powerful whereas girls are showed how to be forgiving, docile and ladylike. If a child shows to be going against such expected norms then there is the chance that they can expected to be ostracised from their community or culture, or treated badly. In exceptional circumstances some cultures limit access to basic human rights such as nutrition health care. The treatment of genders in some cultures can also help to reinforce a separate gender identity, for examples in many third world cultures, girls have both different legal and ethical access to education so therefore go on to expect to be treated differently from boys, all based on their gender identity. Toy selection and clothing although seemingly innocent can i n fact play a crucial part in gender socialisation. Clothing plays a significant part in gender socialisation. As children become mobile, certain types of clothing encourage certain or discourage particular behaviours or activities (Renzetti and Curran 2002; 70) by this Renzetti and Curran refer to the idea that the way a child is dressed can influence their expected gender identity. For example a female child dressed in a soft, flowing or lace detailed dress would be expected to behave more soft and gentle compared to a male child in Denim jeans who would be accepted for rough and tumble behaviour. The Psychological and Biological explanations for gender. To develop a greater understanding of sociological explanations for gender socialisation it is also important to compare and contrast the arguments raised to those of another discipline. As Urdy notes it is important to consider new schools of thinking as social science stems from such thoughts. It is also impossible to study gender without noting the biological differences of human beings. Gender has biological foundations (Udry 1994 ; 571) One of the most prominent theories about gender acknowledgement comes from the school of psychology. Sigmund Freuds work focused on the importance of childhood and the experience that children experience that children gain throughout it, especially in relation to their gender. Freud noted that gender development is an unconscious experience that occurs through forming a bond with a parental figure. Although this project will focus on primarily the sociological explanations for gender socialisation many texts touch upon further academic disciplines who discuss the construction of gender. It is therefore important to include such references into my project, due to the reference through the literature I have reviewed. Societys expectations. Societys expectations of male and female positions within society have also changed over time. Throughout this project I hope to investigate the suggestion that societies tolerant of the changing gender of identity of females has become more positive. A rise in females in the workplace, taking on stereotypical male occupations (fire fighter, police force, and, engineer) and asserting dominance in regards to their position throughout society. Family socialisation can be seen to encourage female children to display characteristically male but male children are often scorned from displaying any stereotypical female behaviour. Girls are accepted even if they prefer to play with male orientated toys, if they were trousers or show an interest in rough and tumble but if a male child played with baby dolls or wore a dress may experience more negative reaction from society. Parents, through primary socialisation, can be seen to be more likely to encourage their daughters to these masculine qu alities then allow their sons to display feminine qualities (Van Volkon 2003) Here Van Volkon gives weight to the importance primary socialisation, through their family can have on a child. The role of women is seen to be changing in contemporary society, but does this mean that the main social gender identity is getting left behind? Conclusion. Looking at gender sociologically helps to reveal societal and cultural proportions of something that is generally thought of as biologically fixed. It helps us to understand how individuals are in a new viewpoint and to help raise and in the end answer new issues and debates surrounding gender. Throughout this project I hope to uncover answers to sociologically questions such as is gender culturally learnt? I am also interested in uncovering how important, or how much influence the family have on gender socialisation, especially in relation to children and childhood. To help with this the work of Emily Kane in The Gender Trap (2012) has proved useful. By conducting Interviews and observations of families, parents and children this literature helps to give empirical backing to the texts I have read throughout this review. Gender socialisation and how it is understood is an ongoing sociological question. Above is a brief overview of what literature I have found useful to attempt to study the subject of gender socialisation. As society can be seen as every changing I am interested in what such change, if any has on the construction and notion of gender. As understood throughout the literature reviewed modern institutions, such as education and the family, have great influence on society and how its individuals are taught how to fit in. Ideas and the construction of gender are constant with more radical forms of socialisation occurring i.e. gender neutral parenting and its societal impact. Not all the literature I have come across has proved useful to my project research, but this has allowed me to learn mistakes that previous research uncovered and helped to give my research direction and fresh thinking for future research. Throughout wider reading, I have concluded that using more contemporary sources and academic texts helped to give my research weight and productive reference. Introduction. The aim of this paper is to examine the influence that family has on gender development and the socialisation process. It will focus on how family influence can affect the construction of gender identity in children from birth through to the first year in primary schooling, around 5-6 years of age and also how the process of socialisation impacts parents. I shall attempt to examine both primary and secondary influences that can shape the gender identity of a family. The first part of this paper shall look at how becoming a parent can force an individual to have an influence on the gender identity of another and how this process may change their existing gender identity. Secondly this paper shall attempt to examine how the primary socialisation process impacts female children compared with male children. Society and its actors view the world through a series of lenses: those lenses can include class, race, age and gender. Society is full of stereotypes and the expectations that come with them. Social actors have little choice but to be subjected to learning these expectations and to submit to the influence they have on their personal identity. From childhood to adulthood our identity is constantly being reinforced as to what our culture and society wants and sees as acceptable. These stereotypes are expected of everyone but in fact may not be fair to all members of society. As they move through childhood, children are influenced by those that they interact with and are taught right from birth what it is to be a successful member of society. To understand the sociological concept concerned with the construction of gender, it is important to comprehend first of all the factors that influence ones gender construction. The continuing aim of this paper is to show that it is possible to identify different areas of gender socialization, which vary in their impact on children and those around them, which are essential to build up a gender identity. The best way to understand the concept of gender is to gain a basic knowledge of the concept it. From a structural perspective, gender is seen as the division of individuals within a society into contrasting and complementary social categories; boys and girls into men and women. In this conceptualisation, gendering in the process and a gendered social order can be seen to be the product of some kind of social construction (Lorber, 1994). Gender based norms can be defined as what we expect from males and females within society whereas gender stereotypes can be seen as how a society generalizes these expectations. Gender based stereotypes are generally first thought of being taught in the home, which are later reinforced by peer interactions, education and schooling, as well as widespread media contact. It can be seen that the family unit does in fact have the largest influence on a childs gender development. Their family members, parents in particular, overtly and covertly teach their child gender roles and reinforce the ideas of gender that they hold about themselves. Both socialisation, primary and secondary, cultural expectations and given biological attributes are all seen to influence an individuals gender identity and as a result has a significant effect on their personal identity. Vuorinen Tuunala, (1997) noted that Socialisation is the process, through which the child becomes an individual respecting his or hers environments laws, norms and customs. (pg45) From this, socialisation can be seen as a fundamental sociological concept and therefore is an important area of analysis. It is the way that individuals learn to be a functioning part of society and how to become an accepted member of the social group in which they are living amongst. Socialisation starts from the moment we are born and it is seen as a continuous process. It carries on throughout our lives, to help us fit and be accepted into the many groups within society that we encounter during our lifetime or to simply adjust to the changes in our existing community. The educational function that Murdock refers to, can also be termed socialisation. The family has the responsibility of transmitting a societys way of life, norms and values to the younger members. This function is an important one as, wi thout culture, the society could not survive, and too much deviation from the norm would disrupt the stability of the society. Classical sociology has also be long concerned with the process known as socialisation. Talcott Parsons (1959) has written about the functions of the family and identified two functions that he perceives as being basic and irreducible. For Parsons, the family provided primary socialisation of children and as a result, produced the stabilisation of the personalities within adults amongst wider society. [Haralambos Holborn, 2000, p.509] How children become socialised into different characters can be based on their sex. Through this more focused form of socialisation, boys and girls are repeatedly taught what it means to be male or female and what gender roles will be expected of them is termed gender socialisation (Giddens, 1993). Although it is an important social topic that affects all members of society at one time, widespread mainstream literature concerning gender socialisation is difficult to come by. There are many different theories of how gender socialisation happens and how or when it occurs. The two main theories I shall touch upon within this paper are social learning theory and as a follow on to this, social identification theory. These two theories are concerned with the development of gender identity and attempt to explain how the environment around an individual can influence their personal and social gender identity. Social learning theory proposes, established by Bandura (1971) that both gender identity and gender role are learned through a process including observation, imitation, punishment and reinforcement. On the other hand, social identification theory developed by Tajfel and Turner (1979) as a response to Bandura is based upon the notion that an individual portrays certain behaviours or an identity that reflects the social group to which they belong, to help them adapt and adopt the ways of the group. In its simplest form, gender socialisation is how individuals learn and accept the expected gender norms and values of the culture and society they are born into. Through this education they begin to develop a sense of identity and their ideas of gender become internalised and guide their behaviour. The mass media, wide spread social norms, environmental factors such as living conditions and even language distribute the stereotypes which influence social behaviour and therefore what is expected from gender in society. These external factors contribute to categorizing members of society and placing social label upon them. Examples of labels can include race, class and most importantly for this paper, gender. A shared stereotype is when an expected behaviour or conformity is mutual and accepted by all members of the social group, the way that individuals interpret this label determines how well they are accepted into their social group. Such gender stereotypes can be seen as a set of rules appropriate for males and females. These rules help to guide how males and females are labelled by their social group and indicate how they should behave, expectations become internalised and form an individuals gender identity. Separate stereotypes are linked to male and female members of society, with no two overlapping. Men are seen to be strong and emotionless whilst women are expected to show their emotions and are seen as submissive and gentle. For example, if a woman is seen to cry at an emotional moment in a movie, in a public cinema for instance, no individual around her would glance or question it, but if a male viewer was seen to cry openly and express such intense emotion, he may be exposed to ridicule or judgement. How fair this situation may be is often debated. For this paper the question of how such judgements occur will attempt to be answered. Why have social actors been encouraged to accept such stereotypes as a given? Why do individuals therefore find themselves accepting these roles for themselves? To understand gender identity it is important to make a distinction between sex and gender. Sex involves the biological and physical differences between men and women, whilst gender is culturally and socially learnt. Terminology such as male and female are sex based categories; however masculine and feminine are gendered categories. An individuals sex is a biological fact that is the same in any culture or society, nonetheless sex categorisation means, in terms of gender role as man or woman, can be viewed extremely differently across cultures ( WHO 2013). These gender roles can have a lasting impact in an individuals public and private identity. Although often used interchangeably, sex and gender are clearly different characteristics. Gender involves social customs, attributes and behaviours whereas sex can be seen as a more personal demonstration of such characteristics. In its simplest form sex is biological and gender is sociological. Gender role is seen sociologically as the characteristics and behaviours that society can attribute to the sexes. What it means to be a real man, in any society requires a male to be both recognised biologically as a man plus what the culture of that society defines as masculine characteristics and behaviours, likewise a real woman needs biological female attributes and feminine characteristics. Such stereotypical features are clearly defined for each sex, with those who break such guidelines being seen as deviant, outcasts in their given society. This paper will look further into what are expected gender behaviours and the sociological explanations for these expected personas. Gendered differences can depend on the given society and the cultural values, economic system, history and family structures that it holds, and are thoroughly maintained through these mediums. As a result of this a continuous loop-back effect between so called gendered institutions and the social construction of gender within individuals can be seen to exist (West and Zimmerman 1987) Gender identity goes beyond just recognising the physical biological gender characteristics belonging to male and female and identifying them from each other. Gender identity is in fact an internal and personal conception of how individuals view themselves as male or female and therefore how they conduct their actions within society. Gender cannot be equated with biological and physiological differences between human males and females. The building blocks of gender are socially constructed (Lorber 1994:17). As a social group, communities are embedded with gender, all members experience gender constructed experiences throughout their childhood, adolescence and eventually adulthood. These experiences are reproduced in and through those that they interact with. To what extent individuals accept the expected gender roles they are shown is debateable although no matter how much or how little they see themselves as masculine or feminine, gender can still influence their day to day existence. British sociology saw the only significant form of stratification within any given society was that of class. The term gender wasnt mentioned in early sociological thought, with any reference to difference between men and women categorised and referred to as sex. Sex being considered as an important and influential sociological concept only came into consideration with the emerging and developing feminist perspectives of the 1970s. Feminists had to fight through traditional theories to change existing thought on the concept of differences and inequalities brought about by an individuals gender and sex identity. Socialisation is a fundamental sociological concept and can be applied to many areas of society that are seen as important to sociological study. As highlighted earlier, socialisation is defined as the way in which an individual learns to become part of a group, including wider civilization, as well as their small immediate environment and community. Socialisation begins the moment an individual is born, and they encounter different degrees of the process throughout all their life stages in order to help them adapt to each and every social group they encounter. Socialisation also helps to equip a social actor with the tools they need to cope and bend with any changes that may occur within their existing social group. Given the importance of socialisation within the discipline of sociology as a whole, concentrating on a focused area of socialisation can help with building a general knowledge that can be applied to further study of sociology and its topics. Gender is something that is experienced and encountered by all members of any given society and there are many different theories about what exactly affects an individuals gender socialisation, but this paper shall focus on early socialisation and the influence family life can have in the socialisation process. Parental influence on gender identity A childs initial experiences come from their parents; therefore as a result their first experience with gender identity also comes from their close family environment. With the advancement in technology, expectant parents can learn the sex of their unborn child as early as 14-16 weeks into a pregnancy (nhs.co.uk). From that moment the words its a boy/girl! leave the technicians mouth, gender expectations begin. The most innocent of tasks such as buying a babys first blanket is gendered. A pretty pink flowered one for your baby girl is associated with the expectation that she will be soft and delicate, whereas purchasing a vivid blue truck covered blanket for the soon to be baby boy, can be seen to set him up to be strong and tough. Associating such gender traits in a simple act may seem extreme but it is just the start of teaching a child what is expected from their gender. The process of gender socialization can be seen to begin in the context of the family (McHale et al., 2003). The family unit is the environment that a child is introduced to the world in and what their developing gender demands. Although many factors are seen to have an influence on the socialisation of a child and teaching them what is expected from their gender, parents are seen to act as the principle source of socialisation, the primary socialising agents of a childs gender roles. (Block, 1983; Witt, 1997). Studies have shown that gendered treatment of children is evident in the first 24 hours after birth. Children internalize what they see from their parents behaviour and by the age of two, they have a compressive awareness of the difference in sex roles. Ruble and martin (1998) studied preschool children whose socialisation had only occurred at home (primary) and saw that children showed awareness of stereotyped gender traits. They could recognise males as having a higher power them females, but also associated negative connotations with a male figure, such as anger or unfriendliness, whereas they saw women as having less significant social standing but associated with positive traits such as kindness and approachableness. Children also demonstrated to discover gender identity through their own gendered perception. For instance, when asked to assign a sex or gender to a neutral doll, a girl would use female associations similar to them, whereas a boy child would make the doll into a male and demonstrate traits that are associated to societys masculine gendered attributes. Parents are seen to encourage such gendered behaviour by adhering to sex-based toys and games for their children, which have a heavy influence in the construction of gender identity and stereotypes. While both mothers and fathers contribute to the gender stereotyping of their children, fathers have been found to reinforce gender stereotypes more often than mothers do (Ruble, 1988). Lytton and Romney (1991) conducted a meta-analysis of 172 parents and their treatment of the boy versus girl children they were raising. Within this study, Lytton and Romney discovered that out of multiple identified socialisation areas; the only area that showed mothers and fathers treating children differently was giving them activities based on their separate genders. Giving boys and girls activities initially based on their sex, resulted in an enforcement of gender roles and becoming gender orientated. Encouraging their daughters to play house or with dolls and prams, or by allowing their sons to play with trucks or building blocks, parents may both knowingly and unknowingly be encouraging their childs future gendered persona. Perhaps due to an influence of western culture norms, Lytton and Romney saw that parents scold and punish boys more severely in the advent of misbehaving or going out of their gendered expectations, then that they do with female children. This idea shall be further explored in a later section of this paper. A further study, this time by Cowan and Hoffman (1986), saw that a childs first words are also seen as gendered. For instance, being taught to assign a different name to each of their parents, mother for female carer and father for male carer, demonstrates how parental influence takes place. Hoffman also noted that the
Friday, January 17, 2020
Some people find comfort in being involved in art. For them, their creations are the product of self-expressions that have no other better way of being expressed than through art. Some feel that they connect to the world or to their surroundings and arouse feelings through art. There may be some people whose passions center on art. For whatever reasons, art has become one of the areas where changes took place. Particularly, the media of art changed through the many technological advances that were introduced into the public. Art can be defined in many ways.There were traditional and contemporary definitions of art (Adajian). Generally, art refers to creative human endeavors. It also refers to any product of a creative impulse. Although it usually refers to visual arts, art also includes music, plastic arts, performing arts, and decorative arts. Moreover, art has many forms, including music, sculpture, painting, literature, performance art, drawing, and architecture. With the changing times and new technologies, art has included other forms such as conceptual art, computer art, photography, comics, video art, and film (WordIQ).All of these forms of art evolved as the world slowly became modernized. Recent technological advances have also placed great burden on some of the traditional media of art such as pencil and canvas. Many people think that along with hi-tech devices such as computer and camera, the use of pencil, coloring materials, ink or paint would become obsolete. Other technological advances that affected the media of art will be discussed as follows. The Quantel Paintbox The Quantel paintbox, which was launched in 1981, is a computer system which aids in manipulating video and in creating graphics.Through Quantel paintbox, the production of television graphics was further developed and improved. Quantel paintbox can now be run on workstations, unlike before when only hardware can run it. Moreover, professionals use Quantel paintbox up to this day for TV production. It was used extensively in creating artwork for the Ã¢â¬Å"Painting With Light,Ã¢â¬ which was a 1986 BBC series. Additionally, the Quantel was used in Arte, a European Network which created original TV designs. There were also new designs made for Quantel, namely: the Paintbox, Paintbox gQ, and QPaintbox (BroadcastEngineering).Computer Computer impacted the media of art in such a way that no traditional art media is needed to create art. For instance, with just the mouse, an artist can create cartoons and visual effects, unlike before when artists really must use pencil and paper. Artists before used materials for creating a film and sometimes these materials were unstable. For instance, images were placed in cels, or sheets of clear plastic. To avoid creating brushstrokes, colors must be manually painted from the back of the cel.Artists also used substances such as cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate during the early 1900s. But today, artists are spared from using materials that decompose (Worth). Moreover, the ease of using computer and saving the works in it is an advantage that traditional medium cannot compete with. An artist can make use of visual or special effects with just a few clicks. A lyricist can write his songs in the computer. There is even software which allows the recording of songs. The invention of the computer has encouraged artists to use it for art purposes.Animation Software We see it on movies. From The Lion King to Bolt. There are even movies where humans and cartoon characters were incorporated as though the world of humans and that of the cartoons are one. Thanks to animation softwares that are of much help, everything can be possible today. The implementation of animation softwares among artists has also affected the media of art in major ways. With these softwares, it is much easier for artists to make animations. However, traditional media of art is still used.For instance, an artist creates a storyboard us ing pencil before the output can be fed into the computer for further changes or improvements. In another instance, character designs are created first by animators or artists. Then these designs would be produced on Model Sheets (or photographic stats) before distribution to the other artists (Worth). Camera Camera was first invented in 1841 by Joseph Nicephore Niepce. It has evolved from the machine that only takes images from the dark to the high-tech ones today (ShotAddict). With the invention of the camera, photography became the Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ thing.As time passed by, many more persons added features to the first camera. There was the invention of film, and now there are digital cameras which do not use films. It is also much easier to print out pictures taken by a digital camera. With the appearance of digicams, the traditional cameras slowly become obsolete, although there are still some artist which prefer using ones that they can manipulate Paints From the paints that we re used on canvas, now there are paints that can be used for clothing, foils, and specialty papers.With these paints, artists can turn any flat surface into printable surface. These paints have affected paint as a traditional medium of art because now paints are not only limited to paper or canvas (ArtMedia). With the fast paced world, art has been under a lot of changes, particularly in its media. Pencils, markers, paints and the other materials that were used before were now substituted with more hi-tech materials such as computer, camera, and animation softwares. However, despite the technological advances, art has always been there and man continually seek art.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Heres a simple fire chemistry demonstration that produces instant fire without using matches or any other type of flame. Potassium chlorate and ordinary table sugar are combined. When a drop of sulfuric acid is added, a reaction is catalyzed which produces heat, an amazing bright/tall purple flame, and a lot of smoke. Instant Fire Materials Potassium chloratePowdered (confectioners) sugar or table sugar (sucrose)Sulfuric acidSmall glass jar orÃ test tube Procedure MixÃ equal parts potassium chlorate and table sugar (sucrose) in a small glass jar or test tube. Choose a container you dont value, as the demonstration will probably cause it to shatter.Place the mixture in a fume hood and equip lab safety gear (which you should be wearing anyway). To initiate the reaction, carefully add a drop or two of sulfuric acid to the powdered mixture. The mixture will burst into a tall purple flame, accompanied by heat and a lot of smoke.How it works: potassium chlorate (KClO3) is a powerful oxidizer, used in matches and fireworks. Sucrose is an easy-to-oxidize energy source. When sulfuric acid is introduced, potassium chlorate decomposes to produce oxygen:2KClO3(s) heat Ã¢â¬â 2KCl(s) 3O2(g)The sugar burns in the presence of oxygen. The flame is purple from the heating of the potassium (similar to a flame test). Tips Perform this demonstration in a fume hood, as a considerable quantity of smoke will be produced. Alternatively, perform this demonstration outdoors.Granulated table sugar is preferable to powdered sugar which is, in turn, preferable to reagent grade sucrose. The powdered sugar is capable of smothering the fire, while the granules of the reagent-grade sucrose may be too large to support a Ã¢â¬â¹good reaction.Follow proper safety precautions. Do not store the potassium chlorate and sugar mixture, as it can react spontaneously. Use care when removing the potassium chlorate from its container, to avoid sparking, which can ignite the container. Wear the usual protective gear when performing this reaction (goggles, lab coat, etc.).The Dancing Gummi Bear is a variation on this demonstration. Here, a small quantity of potassium chlorate is carefully heated in a large test tube, clamped to a ring stand over a flame, until it has melted. A Gummi Bear candy is added to the container, resultin g in a vigorous reaction. The bear dances amidst bright purple flames.